At the exact moment the alleged United Flight 175 entered the World Trade Center South Tower, lights flickered across the street and certain TV broadcasts shortly blacked out. This flicker happened before the explosion was seen– the instant the plane disappeared into the building. The television issues happened at almost exactly the same time… except for WNYW FOX5 a half second later. Why did this happen, exactly?
“911 Blackouts” by Ace Baker (This is not an endorsement of Baker’s theories. Also note the WNYW Chopper5 blackout was ~0.4 seconds later. See below.)
[A] lot of people seem to think that somebody in the control room somewhere kind of pressed a button and it faded to black because they saw the nose come out the other side.
– Jeff Hill, 2008 (see quote below from a telephone conversation with the photographer that was in Chopper5)
Fade To Black Theories
Was the LIVE broadcast an example of a video composite being used to create the first of many fake Boeing videos? Was the actual plane something different? Was there a plane at all? (Yes, a fringe group of conspiracy theorists called “no planers” thinks there was too much risk for the perps in using a real plane… that the thousands of witnesses would be forced by the videos into thinking what they saw – or didn’t see – was a Boeing 767… that the airplane debris could be planted or exploded out of a locked room in the WTC.) I the writer have considered this theory, I admit. However, I must stress that this webpage is not in support of “no plane theory” — or as proponent Dr. Morgan Reynolds would say, “No Big Boeing” theory….
So was the alleged CGI airplane nose sticking further out than the debris ejecta in other videos… “Pinnochio’s nose,” as Ace Baker calls it? Compare ABC LIVE in the image below (source: RasgaSaias). See also the amateur “Gamma Press” and “PAX-TV” footage (televised on 9/11 afternoon) in the playlist above. Were those fake too, made to match WNYW? So the theory goes, the video fakers screwed up because the planned layer mask of the WTC moved when the helicopter floated to the left at the last second. Supposedly, that made the guy in the “control room” press the blackout button.
So what else could have caused the blackout? And did I really spend hours researching this? LOL 😀 Yes, I did! What follows is a study of the NON no-planer theories– and why almost none of them seem to hold up to scrutiny.
“Nose-out” comparison :: ABC LIVE (WCBS-AM Chopper 880) vs. WNYW Chopper5
Was it the camera’s automatic gain control, as Steve Wright said in the Hardfire debate with Ace Baker (watch in the playlist at 911conspiracy.tv)? Seeing as the camera was already pointed at the rising sun, and the explosion had only just started, I think the answer is an easy NO. Auto brightness adjust did not apply.
How about a disturbance to broadcast equipment on WTC 1? The TV transmitter mast was the primary broadcast facility for: WCBS 02, WNBC 04, WNYW 05, WABC 07, WWOR 09, WPIX 11, WNET 13, WPXN 31, WNJU 47, WKCR 89.9, WPAT 93.1, WNYC 93.9, and WKTU 103.5.” (Mike Fitzpatrick, source) Here I point out that Chopper5 filmed the “collapse” of both buildings (watch the LIVE WTC 1 demolition on WNYW)– and both events were broadcast thanks to cable TV… which about 70 percent of the US population had at the time (source). Of course, cable TV (CATV) is essentially Community Antenna TV, with cables going from the satellite receiver base to area homes, with amplifiers at critical spots in between (for 2001 in New York there are unknown details — share new info with me, matt@911conspiracytv).
How about an electrical disturbance? See the Burger King lights flash in the Evan Fairbanks video. Notice also a light in 4 WTC. Was that and/or Chopper5’s fade to black caused by 1. the impact vibration or 2. something directly connected electrically?
1. Maybe vibration briefly starved the equipment used to receive or process the helicopter video feed with no electricity? Or was it a jolt? Well…. Using the Fairbanks video we can see the precise amount of time it takes for the Burger King (lit sign and fluorescent lights) blackout to occur. See the Fairbanks HD slideshow. In a 59.94 frames-per-second video, it takes 11-12 frames after the initial nose impact for the lights below to flicker. That is 0.18 to 0.20 seconds. At this time the plane’s tail had barely crossed the building perimeter. See the NIST estimation of debris dispersal at that time inside WTC 2. After 0.2 seconds the vibration would have traveled through the iron of the exterior columns toward the earth at 5,120 meters per second (speed of sound through iron), potentially reaching 1,024 meters (WTC 2 floor 80 = 292 meters + 21 m below street level), ringing into the granite below… causing a 0.7 earthquake on the Richter scale (source – Note first that the bulk of airplane mass didn’t impact the bulk of the tower’s mass in the building core until between 0.1 and 0.2 seconds, adding some time to this equation. Note also that the WTC 1 impact was a 0.9 magnitude and no reports of flickering lights or TV issues have been found from 8:46 AM to my knowledge. Note finally that no other examples of flickering lights at 9:03 AM have been found out of the 58 videos that captured the plane— and out of the 53 that only shot the explosion. Yet no lights have been noticed in other videos at all. When I say lights, that doesn’t include TVs:
Vince Sabio – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qx75FqabYss and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zuz_or2IP0U. See also http://wtc.vjs.org. The TV went out a few blocks away from the WTC (Worth St. and W. Broadway), audibly losing its signal off camera. In a personal communication, Vince has told me his electric power wasn’t affected. When I asked, he said that he did in fact have cable TV, RCN to be specific. The station on at the moment was…
WCBS Channel 2 – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpgL8EsHrig#t=2m40s. In one recorded version at least, there is a flash of an interference-like bar center screen at 2:54-2:55, right after (~0.2 seconds) the spoken words “seven thirty-seven.” That’s when Sabio’s TV audio cut out… at 0.2 to 0.3 seconds into the crash (comparing videos to nearly match the Fairbanks flicker).
“johnstayhome” – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yBpvq-2mxvA#t=50s and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zjrWa6khyY. Johnstayhome was in Queens. The antenna reveals he didn’t have cable. After the collapses, he watched WCBS channel 2, thanks to the network’s backup transmitter on the Empire State Building (source). During the plane crash, WNBC Channel 4 was on the TV he was videotaping with his camera. The last words heard from the female news anchor are “…fight it from in…,” cut off in the middle of – perhaps before – the word “inside.” This matches another interruption of the WNBC broadcast. Which leads to…
CNBC LIVE – WNBC Channel 4 video feed had issues, but only as aired LIVE on CNBC. Note Channel 4 itself aired the plane impact clearly, LIVE. Notice in the CNBC footage the video feed turned to static (lost signal), but the CNBC news ticker/banner remained in operation. The beginning of the interruption nearly matches the timing of the Fairbanks light flicker… and the following TV issue:
WABC Channel 7 – Example 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iK1C9dZhsuA#t=4m1s. This TV lost its audio (static replaced it for 7 seconds) while recording New York City local ABC channel 7 to VCR. The video file came from a cable TV VCR recording. We know because other segments of the tape continue into the afternoon (after the transmitter on WTC 1 fell). Also, the screen blacked out, except for the station ID logo. This particular segment of video appears virtually identical to the WABC broadcast recorded by others…
Example 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvIdiLJ8I5g#t=2m25s. No audio disturbance was experienced. See a slideshow of this quality recording: http://www.911conspiracy.tv/WABC_slideshow.html. The station ID logo wasn’t disturbed (but in one frame). Another version looked exactly the same–
Example 3: The WABC broadcast aired simultaneously on CNN. See the slideshow for a detailed inspection: http://www.911conspiracy.tv/CNN_slideshow.html. The source for the CNN clip also has many hours of 9/11 TV collected from multiple stations (and 9/12 – 9/13). This collection was “recorded live from around September 11, 2001 by the non-profit Television Archive.” This is the source used to verify the WABC helicopter shot aired without interruption on ABC’s “Good Morning America” and on BBC World (examples 4 & 6 below). The TV Archive provides some info on their methods: “BBC World was received from Bell ExpressVu (a Canadian direct-to-home service) and encoded using a real-time MPEG-2 encoder.”
Examples 4, 5, and 6: NOTE that these broadcasts airing the same helicopter shot were not affected: LIVE ABC Good Morning America, FOX News, and BBC World. This is because the WABC helicopter feed (actually WCBS-AM traffic chopper 880) cross-faded with a stationary camera in Brooklyn– on WABC Channel 7 (and CNN). Careful inspection of the video frames shows that the Brooklyn building camera blacked out, not the helicopter’s. Study the Brooklyn camera angle here: http://www.911conspiracy.tv/2nd_hit_missed.html#2.
Gedeon Naudet – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdRP8MTlVWI. One amateur video (out of the 40-some known amateur videos showing the 2nd plane) features a blackout – missing frames – at the instant of plane impact (about 0.5 seconds after initial nose impact), right when the debris begins to explode out of the northeast corner of WTC 2. Gedeon Naudet was videotaping for what would be the most famous documentary on the subject (because of the 1st plane impact shot), a film titled “9/11” for airing on CBS– and available on DVD as “9/11: The Filmmakers’ Commemorative Edition.” We can’t be sure if the camera malfunctioned or not, because the “blackout” is the time removed from the film in the form of numerous frames. This could be artistic license to create a feeling of chaos (totally unnecessary considering the moment). No comment or explanation from the filmmakers has been offered.
Back to the possible electrical disturbance due to reason number 1, vibration. To reach that bedrock from 313 meters would take 0.06 seconds. Add 100 more meters (0.02 seconds) to get to the lights at Burger King in the Fairbanks video (lights not on the same electric system as the WTC. See Merritt & Harris, Inc., “Property Condition Assessment of World Trade Center Portfolio” (2 WTC), Dec. 6, 2000, pp. 106-107 of 278 (911blogger.com details and downloads). Add 150 more meters (to 313) to get to the electrical substation in WTC 7, which supplied power to lower Manhattan (according to FEMA “WTC Building Performance Study”, Chapter 5, p. 2). Remember Vince Sabio said his electricity wasn’t affected. So we’re talking about 0.09 to 0.1 seconds for vibration to travel after 0.1 to 0.2 seconds for major vibration to start. (Or for electrical disturbance reason number 2, a technical electricity-related connection, 0.18 to 0.2 seconds for the plane to start a chain reaction somehow directly connected.) That vibration math may rule out the WTC 7 scenario as causing the Fairbanks lights to flicker, which we still don’t know for sure is related to WNYW’s fade to black.
Maybe the vibration shook the WNYW FOX Channel 5 studio at 205 East 67th Street in the Yorkville section of Manhattan, since 1954. See the WNYW entry at Wikipedia. That’s 3.5 miles away from the WTC. And if vibration from that distance were really the issue, what about the other TV news stations? CBS 2 News at 524 West 57th Street, WNBC 4 at 30 Rockefeller Plaza (GE Building), WABC-TV at Columbus Avenue and 66th Street, mailing Address per abclocal.go.com…, or Lincoln Square NY, NY 10023 or per Google Maps at 7 West 63rd Street, and WPIX 11 at Second Avenue and East 42nd Street (News Building)? What about the lack of issues during the collapses? I think it’s safe to say vibration wasn’t the cause.
In the Chopper5 video, the blackout is delayed about 0.73 seconds (plus or minus .033, 1 frame) after the initial nose impact. That amount of time (~0.5 seconds between lights flickering in the Fairbanks video and WNYW’s blackout) indicates a phenomenon much slower than radio waves/microwaves or electricity travels (at or near the speed of light, respectively). It indicates something entirely unrelated…. More on my theory/answer soon.
Now let’s time the WABC blackout. To figure out the moment of impact, I did a drawing on a frame of the footage. The South Tower was perfectly situated behind the North, as this video shows. So I counted the number of frames from impact to blackout: 10 – first interference, 11 – begin fade, and 12 – black. At 30 frames per second, that means ~0.33 seconds passed before an effect was evident. (For Chopper5 I counted 22, 23, and 24… or 0.73 seconds.)
The time between the WABC and Fairbanks issues (~0.13 seconds) could also suggest different causes. Yet this problem won’t be resolved here. Read more about the speed of electricity to decide for yourself.
THE LAST FRAME BEFORE BLACK: WABC ~0.4 SECONDS EARLIER
Nevertheless, for a brief overview of the WTC electrical system, or to discuss this issue, visit the Loose Change forum thread in which I’ve participated.
What about interference with the Chopper5 signal? Was it some kind of EMP? Because only this particular helicopter video had issues at that moment. The other, more closely synched issues of Fairbanks, Sabio, johnstayhome, CNBC and WABC may apply to an EMP situation. However, that isn’t the focus of this webpage. Something different happened on WNYW from the looks of that WABC/CNN electrical effect (?)– and considering the ~0.4-second post-impact time difference. The picture faded in the Chopper5 shot. Yet the cross-fade on WABC/CNN revealed something similar: scan lines during the Chopper880 fade out. The same lines are in the WNYW footage (interlaced versions). Admittedly, there is some static-like disturbance to the WNYW picture fade… specifically frames 136-138 of the deinterlaced Ebbetts version above (which matches the other East Coast versions precisely — compare the Ebbetts slideshow with the radioskip DVD slideshow). The bar of interference in 136 is nearly identical in position and consistency to that of 228, which comes exactly a second after the picture fades back in. Importantly, however, these anomalies can not be found in the West Coast version seen in the slideshow below, or the rare afternoon replays above, or the NIST Cumulus version (top left on image above :: from 9:08 am replay, compressed avi :: LIVE not available! LOL :: see Cumulus FOIA details).
But was that stationary camera feed delivered by microwave like Chopper5? That is, assuming the “High 5” chopper wasn’t up to speed with “Air 11,” WPIX’s (WB11’s) new digital technology. See quote and link below. This unknown presents a problem, but the fact remains that scan lines (on interlaced versions) means fade, not loss of signal. [To see the smooth fade in a deinterlaced version, watch the Dr. Ebbetts 59.94fps version (mp4), or the 15 minutes of myfoxny.com WNYW coverage.]
“WPIX-TV’s digital helicopter” BY RALPH AUGENFELD, Aug 1, 2001
“Conventional news helicopters are outfitted with a standard FM analog microwave transmitter. Fading, breakup, audio and video noise, limited picture quality and multipath reception problems (ghosting) are all too common. Signals bouncing off reflective surfaces like buildings or mountains cause multipath problems that come in two flavors: static and dynamic. Static multipath interference can be observed when transmitting from a fixed location; bounced signals arrive at the receive antenna a little later than the main signal. This often causes video ghosting, chroma smear, changing hues and audio buzz that can seriously degrade live shots. Microwave transmission from a moving source can be particularly susceptible to dynamic multipath interference, characterized by signal dropouts, moving multiple ghosts, and severe chroma and audio noise fluctuations.”
What does the Chopper5 cameraman Kai Simonsen think?
Jeff: …just before it goes black. Do you know why it went, it faded to black right as soon as the plane hit…on the video?
Kai: The…I, I don’t know if it actually–it didn’t fade to black. What happened was is that I put the 2x extender on. There’s a thing called a 2x extender…
Jeff: mm hmm
Kai: …which actually doubles the strength of the lens, so as the plane got closer to the building, I was, I was made aware the plane was getting close to the building, so I zoomed in closer to get a closer shot with the 2x extender, and that’s what you’re seeing. You’re seeing the actual 2x extender…flip into the lens, and it’s, and it’s actually, you know, slides into place, so there’s a moment where it actually goes black because you’re seeing the edge of the extender pass, you know, over the focal plane.
Jeff: Oh, cause yeah, a lot of people, ah, seem to think that somebody in the control room somewhere kind of pressed a button and it faded to black because they saw the nose come out the other side.
Kai: Yeah, um, that’s, that’s not the case… (source)
Kai, that simply cannot be the case. Comparing the view before and after the “fade to black” reveals no difference in zoom. Did you press the wrong button, maybe? Was the 2x extender stuck or reversed momentarily, thereby blocking the view for a fraction of a second? In my humble opinion, that wouldn’t cause a perfect fade, especially one lasting as long as it did — just like interference or signal dropout wouldn’t have been possible.
To me it sounds like something human… perhaps even to start this red herring-type conspiracy theory. Maybe the near-instantaneous electrical disturbance happened in the WNYW-TV studio (without affecting the uninterruptible broadcast) — to which a studio tech person reacted on reflex by flipping a switch or pressing a button over which his/her hand was already hovering. When the switch/button turned off the video feed, the person responsible turned it right back on. Also consider this: a domino effect started by the electrical issue caused another machine — maybe a third in the process — to power off and back on.
It borders on crazy to think that the picture was purposefully faded to black to hide a video fakery error — a sight that wasn’t unusual in comparison with other such videos — a supposed critical moment on which the whole conspiracy rested in the hands of a person operating video editing software.
When NIST needed help with the analysis and modeling of the controversial WTC 7 “collapse,” Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) was awarded the contract. See http://wtc.nist.gov/solicitations/wtc_awardQ0186.htm and http://wtc.nist.gov/solicitations/wtc_award0539.htm for details on the relationship. NIST and ARA worked together to explain the complex mechanisms for that which had never happened before in the history of steel-framed skyscrapers — total structural collapse due to fire.
The final WTC 7 report (or reports) was released in late 2008… and was summarized in an August 21 press briefing recorded on C-SPAN. (See a rebuttal video now: WTC7 in 7 Minutes: 9/11 Explosions Not Fire, which contains snippets of the NIST briefing from CNN.)
Five years earlier, ARA had been awarded the responsibility of analyzing the aircraft impacts on the two WTC towers. The exact amount of money ARA earned is unknown. Whatever the number, it was too much.
The analyses of the aircraft impacts performed for this investigation are believed to be the highest-fidelity simulations ever performed for this impact behavior using state-of-the art analysis methodologies. Wherever possible, the models were validated against observables or supporting test data developed by the WTC Investigation.
At least one drastic error in those analyses deserves attention. This obvious mistake, explained below, begs the question: If such an oversight could be published, just how much of the WTC 7 report was wrong? If such critical data could be overlooked in order to make the model fit the end result, what real analysis was there?
It should have been easy to determine the angle at which “United Flight 175” impacted WTC 2, specifically the lateral angle. That is, at least to within 3 or 4 degrees. First look at the video still above (Michael Hezarkhani/CNN). The wingtips entered nearly at the same time. Therefore – as we shall see in much more video – the angle was nearly perpendicular, between zero and four degrees. Somehow, NIST and their associates missed by ten full degrees.
The trajectory of the aircraft was crucial in determining which core columns were impacted by what. Ten degrees would have made a substantial difference in the damage estimate.
See also this image from NCSTAR 1 p. 40 — a more detailed WTC 2 damage analysis.
The South Tower of the World Trade Center was struck by an airplane on LIVE TV. Today we have more than 50 videos of this event. See http://www.911conspiracy.tv/2nd_hit.html for a detailed list. At publication of the NIST document in 2005, there were at least 30 from which to choose. Below is a plane impact video compilation with many camera locations pinpointed, thanks to dedicated 9/11 researcher Achimspok.
“The last 12 seconds of the alleged flight UA175 – refined.”
By using these precise camera locations and 3D mapping software, Achimspok is able to elaborate on a near-perpendicular lateral impact orientation. See the short video UA175 – The Last 12 Seconds (part one) and, crucially, part two. These videos describe the final seconds of the flight path in detail, unlike the NIST/ARA study.
NIST only shows us the [supposed] final orientation of the airplane and its “assumed” trajectory. Speed was also a factor, but not for the purposes of this essay. I don’t intend to produce a more accurate aircraft impact damage analysis. I don’t have tens (or hundreds) of thousands of dollars to invest in computer simulations and engineering teams. I do plan on showing that the NIST/ARA study was wrong. It’s easy!
Find the official NIST documents on the subject at their .gov website: NIST NCSTAR 1-2: Baseline Structural Performance and Aircraft Impact Damage Analysis of the World Trade Center Towers. Find the other WTC documents at http://wtc.nist.gov/NCSTAR1/.
In NCSTAR 1-2B (Ch. 7, p. 172) we read the excuse for the mistake by Steven W. Kirkpatrick and Robert T. Bocchieri (with Robert A. MacNeill, Samuel Holmes, Brian D. Peterson, Robert W. Cilke, and Claudia Navarro) of the U.S. military contractor helping NIST– Applied Research Associates (ARA).
Although the lateral approach angle of UAL 175 had a nominal value of 15 degrees, additional observable information was used to define a most probable flight condition. Figure 7-13 shows the top view of WTC 2 with the engines and landing gear in their pre-impact location. Also shown is the projected trajectory of the starboard engine of UAL 175 with an initial lateral approach trajectory of 13 degrees instead of 15 degrees, assuming the engine was not significantly deflected as it passed through the building. With this lateral trajectory, the starboard engine would exit the tower at the northeast corner, consistent with the observables from video and photographic evidence.
It is possible that the tower structure and/or contents deflected the engine from its initial trajectory. The global simulations described in Chapter 9 used a standard configuration for building contents similar to WTC 1. This configuration did not cause substantial deviation in the trajectory of the starboard engine. This lateral trajectory was, therefore, the most likely and was adopted for the global analyses.
They ASSUMED that “the engine was not significantly deflected as it passed through the building.” They disregarded important data, i.e. the correct entry angle, for this reason. This irresponsible act of bad science was done out of laziness. These people were paid by the government (NIST = Dept. of Commerce) and, hence, the taxpaying public.
Additional research into the contents of floor 81 was required. All that really meant was collaborating with the rest of the NIST team. The first clue is provided by the NIST Building and Fire Research Laboratory (Kevin B. McGrattan, Charles Bouldin, and Glenn P. Forney). See NCSTAR 1-5F to find a custom drawn floor plan (see image from Appendix A), which proved to be helpful. “The basic layout from the 78th floor was used for the higher floors with adjustments made to the elevators, vents and major partitions, based on recollections of floor occupants.” (p. 117, or 151 of PDF) From the acknowledgments we learn that “Wayne Schletter, a survivor of WTC 2, provided information about the layout of floors 79 through 82.” (p. xxix) According to nymag.com (and NIST below), he worked on floor 80.
Note that the abrupt change in temperature seen in the northeast corner in the temperature plots of Fig. 6-33 are due to a wall assumed in the floor plan. The coincidence of the wall and the observed window breakage for the first 30 min was merely fortuitous – the wall was put there based only on a rough sketch of the 81st floor by an occupant of the 80th.
– p. 94, or 128 of PDF
In addition to extra walls, the important revised plan for floor 81 contained a stairwell in the path of the starboard engine (NIST NCSTAR 1-5F). This was not in the original plans because it was built for the tenant Fuji Bank. Although specific records for this particular feature of custom construction are not available, some renovations are listed in the NIST report.
– NIST NCSTAR 1-1H, p. 57 (“floors affected” is obviously wrong, mixed up with WTC1 chart, not pictured)
The only details offered about renovations include the following:
– NIST NCSTAR 1-1C
UPS and Computers
The letters stand for “uninterruptible power supply” – batteries – not United Parcel Service… which NIST actually confused – and confuses! See this letter from NIST to the Enrico Manieri:
OR was this “UPS” confusion the result of deception to downplay the importance of the massive collection of batteries that required the floor trusses to be strengthened. See the extended quote below that shows the batteries were without a doubt in a corner of the building– and when 2 specific corners are mentioned they are the engine-exit northeast (see fig. 13.2 above, although beside where it reads floor 80 and 1990, instead of 81 and 1991, as stated in 1-1 C, p.50 and southwest corners (the SW was where survivor/plane witness Stanley Praimnath was located).
This tells us that the computer room was on the east wall – perhaps on the south. The UPS racks extended to the northeast corner, where the engine (found at the corner of Church and Murray St) exited through the hole hidden by aluminum coating. (Read from NIST NCSTAR 1-3 p. 45 (screenshot) to learn there was no column at floor 81’s corner (see accompanying damage photo).
Next we find the article 9-11 Planes Flew Directly into Secure Computer Rooms in Both Towers. An important witness was an “IT specialist” according to an mp3 audio recording of a Chris Bollyn interview with Stanley Praimnath (at 35:15). Unfortunately, this source remains anonymous. From that article:
Then, out of the blue, a former bank employee came forward, a person who had visited the 81st floor on a weekly basis. His information explains more than he probably thought and provides us with a major clue about what really happened on 9-11. Fuji Bank had torn up the 81st floor, he said, and stripped it down to reinforce the trusses so that the floor could hold more weight. Then they had built a raised floor and filled the entire floor with server-size Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) batteries. These units were bolted to the raised floor which stood about 3 feet above the reinforced 81st floor. Beneath the raised floor ran the cables and power supply that connected the army of batteries. IT techies had to get down on all fours and crawl around beneath the raised floor to connect cables.
“The whole floor was batteries,” he said, “huge battery-looking things.” They were “all black” and “solid, very heavy” things that had been brought in during the night. They had been put in place during the summer prior to 9-11, he said.
The last couple sentences there are suspicious– specifically the part about being “brought in during the night” and “put in place during the summer prior….” The fact remains that racks of lead acid batteries were on 81. That, in addition to the staircase, certainly was enough to change the trajectory of the airplane engine in question.
What other clues do we have about the batteries’ location? Stanley Praimnath tells us the computer room was about 20 x 20 feet and the UPS battery room about 40 x 40 feet. He worked in the Fuji Bank loan department, in the southwest corner of the 81st floor. Did he really know? Wouldn’t such rooms be off limits, locked?
NOTE: These pictures are not from WTC 2. They show a UPS battery room, a fire/safety hazard. All of these batteries were needed in the case of an emergency, to prevent data loss in the “computer room,” which would also be off limits, no doubt.
Where were these limits (walls) in the floor plan, though?
Below is the crucial floor plan image from NCSTAR 1-5F Appendix, with a graphic overlay of the scaled Boeing 767 entering at a more accurate angle. Thanks to Femr2, who has worked hard on this problem.
See also this image by Achimspok, demonstrating a nearly perpendicular impact:
Here we have established beyond a doubt that NIST and/or ARA has published false data, knowingly or not. This was done by twisting input data – the cause – in order to match the observed effect.
What does this say about the controversial WTC 7 collapse study? What questions does this raise? Could the cause for the “collapse” have been engineered by ignoring seemingly obvious data, like reports of explosions and a NYC Office of Emergency Management (OEM) report of an elevator car being blown from its shaft into the hall?
Ground Zero, Manhattan – New York after 9/11
See the following video I made. Please watch in 480p, full screen. (Press play, then adjust resolution. Full screen icon is at right.)
To comment, rate, or to find part two, visit YouTube.com. The video serves as an introduction to the idea of extreme ruin in general, not so much the astronomical temperatures that were a result of the destructive force. A popular descriptive word for Ground Zero, you’ll notice, was:
Let’s hear experienced ironworkers, architects, engineers, firefighters, and professionals who saw the destruction firsthand, as they talk about the mangled steel, extreme temperatures, and unbelievable pulverization of the debris.
Many of the beams were twisted and distorted as though made of rubber or wax. Some beams were over 6 [inches] thick and bent like pretzels. Structural engineers, who are experts in steel structures that have suffered earthquakes and explosions claimed to have seen nothing like this before and could not imagine the kind of pressure and heat required to do this kind of damage.
– Wendy Neu of Hugo Neu Schnitzer East (Hugo Neu Corporation) to the Empire State Chapter of ISRI (Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries) on November 28, 2001, at http://www.hugoneu.com/includes/pdfs/Speech-11-28-2001.pdf
I found it hard to believe that it bent because the size of it and how there’s no cracks in the iron. It’s bent without almost a single crack in it. It takes thousands [?] degrees to bend steel like this.
– Ironworker talking about the “horseshoe” piece saved for possible memorial use, in “Relics from the Rubble,” A&E TV, 2002. Watch clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SLIzSCt_cg#t=1m48s — Commenting on the piece of steel, Mark Wagner of Voorsanger Architects and Associates said, “Typically you’d have buckling and tearing on the tension side, but there’s no buckling at all.” (Update: In a recent interview with the 9/11 Memorial Museum, Wagner changed his story – or lied – saying heat was not a contributing factor! Touchy subject, I guess.)
Architects and engineers — people who work with steel — welders have just never seen the level of destruction and the level of deformation of this material in our lives.
Bart Voorsanger, architect and part of the committee to designate objects to be salvaged) in “Relics from the Rubble,” A&E TV, 2002. — watch at http://www.911conspiracy.tv/mainstream_documentaries.html
This documentary in particular draws attention to the incredible state into which building materials were contorted. The film features a unique look at one of the “meteorites” — a “fused element of steel, molten steel and concrete and all these things fused by the heat into one single element.” (Voorsanger, Ibid. Watch at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SLIzSCt_cg#t=1m20s — or download the clip (mpeg2): here) — update: see a NIST photo from Hangar 17, titled “Fused steel and concrete.” Note that “the melting point of concrete varies between 1800-2500°C” (See http://www.weldcare.co.uk/app10.htm ).
WTC “meteorites” — molten steel and concrete, etc.
It was like the surface of another planet. All there was, was powdered debris and metal. It was a – a very strange scene.
– Chief Daniel Nigro (FDNY Chief of Department 2001-2) in “Conspiracy Files – 9/11: The Third Tower,” BBC TV 2008 — http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=9072062020229593250 at vrt 22:21.
NYPD Deputy Inspector and lead investigator on-site at Fresh Kills Landfill (working with FBI), James Luongo, when asked if there were one particular artifact of interest, replied:
I think the lack of artifacts stands out to me quite a bit. I think the fact that I haven’t seen a door, I haven’t seen a phone, I haven’t seen a computer. I haven’t seen a doorknob. I think that stands out.
– “Relics from the Rubble” — See clip at YouTube
by metamars on Thu Jan 08, 2009 5:21 pm
I went to the NYC Police Museum today to verify that the article and accompanying text were genuine. They are, indeed. Furthermore, there were a few shards of glass, with the following text, which I copied down:
‘Glass was a rare find at Ground Zero, where these shards were recovered. The collapse and fires pulverized and melted most of the glass from the Twin Towers 43,600 windows.’
For investigation into the glass – and to see the photo of the NYC Police Museum display – see “Glass A Rare Find at Ground Zero.”
You have two 110-story office buildings. You don’t find a desk. You don’t find a chair. You don’t find a telephone, a computer. The biggest piece of a telephone I found was half of the keypad, and it was about this big. The building collapsed to dust. How are we supposed to find anybody in this that there’s nothing left of the building?”
– FDNY Engine 7’s Joe Casaliggi in the Naudet documentary “9/11” at vrt 1:25:20 in TV version at http://www.911conspiracy.tv/mainstream_documentaries.html
Next a quote from “World Trade Center: Rise and Fall of an American Icon,” THC, 2002 — Col. John O’Dowd of the US Army Corps of Engineers. See vrt 1:06:30 at http://www.911conspiracy.tv/mainstream_documentaries.html
[Narrator] Aside from huge pieces of twisted steel from the towers, there was little that was recognizable in the debris. Shrapnel-like fragments. Gray dust. No one had ever seen anything like it, even at the site of the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City, also destroyed by an act of terrorism.
[O’Dowd] I said, you know, in Oklahoma City, you could see pieces of desks and chairs. There was something that told you that this was an office building. At the World Trade Center site it seems like everything was pulverized.
Here’s another quote from somebody who worked on the pile:
I’ve seen collapses, and [did?] demolition buildings but nothing like– this was unbelievab– like I said there wasn’t a door, there wasn’t anything to be found. It was all disintegrated, all rubble. Concrete was small little pieces, not even slabs. No desks, no furniture, no computers, no phones, no anything. And so I imagine the people were the same as the building– nothing left.
– Tom Spinard, FDNY Engine 7 in “9/11: The Filmmakers’ Commemorative Edition” (see clip)
Engineer Sees Evidence of Extreme Temperatures in WTC Steel
Dr. Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, who specializes in studying structural damage done by earthquakes and terrorist bombings. He flew to New York on September 19, 2001 to conduct a two-week reconnaissance of the collapsed towers, hoping to gain an understanding of how they’d come down. He was able to examine numerous pieces of steel taken from Ground Zero. [Kenneth Chang, “Scarred Steel Holds Clues, and Remedies.” New York Times, October 2, 2001; Robert Sanders, “Report from Ground Zero.” Berkeleyan, October 3, 2001; Jeffrey R. Young, “Scholars Work to Rebuild the World Trade Center Virtually.” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 7, 2001.]
He said the towers were exceptionally well designed and built, describing the WTC as “the best-designed building I have ever seen.” [Keay Davidson, “Berkeley Professor Seeks the Safer Skyscraper.” San Francisco Chronicle, October 22, 2001.] Yet the structural steel had suffered unusual warping and other major damage:
• Astaneh-Asl said that steel flanges “had been reduced from an inch thick to paper thin.” [Robert Sanders, “Report from Ground Zero.”]
• At a recycling center in New Jersey, he saw 10-ton steel beams from the towers that “looked like giant sticks of twisted licorice.” [Jeffrey R. Young, “Scholars Work to Rebuild the World Trade Center Virtually.”] He showed the San Francisco Chronicle a “banana-shaped, rust-colored piece of steel” that had somehow “twisted like toffee during the terrorist attack.” [Keay Davidson, “Berkeley Professor Seeks the Safer Skyscraper.”]
• He noted the way steel from the WTC had bent at several connection points that had joined the floors to the vertical columns. He described the connections as being smoothly warped, saying, “If you remember the Salvador Dali paintings with the clocks that are kind of melted–it’s kind of like that.” He added, “That could only happen if you get steel yellow hot or white hot–perhaps around 2,000 degrees.” [Jeffrey R. Young, “Scholars Work to Rebuild the World Trade Center Virtually.”]
• In an interview in 2007, Astaneh-Asl recalled, “I saw melting of girders in [the] World Trade Center.” [“Collapse of Overpass in California Becomes Lesson in Construction.” NewsHour, PBS, May 10, 2007.]
• He found a foot-long twisted shard of steel that was “like a piece of bread, but it was high-strength steel.” He commented, “I haven’t seen anything like this [before].” [Pamitha Reynolds, “Berkeley Prof Analyzes Structural Damage of the WTC.” Berkeley Daily Planet, October 20, 2001.]
• He came across “severely scorched [steel] members from 40 or so floors below the points of impact [by the planes].” [David Kohn, “Culling Through Mangled Steel.” CBS News, March 12, 2002.]
• The fireproofing that had been used to protect the WTC steel also showed evidence of extreme conditions. In some places it had “melted into a glassy residue.” [Kenneth Chang, “Scarred Steel Holds Clues, and Remedies.”]
• Astaneh-Asl saw a charred I-beam from WTC Building 7–a 47-story skyscraper that collapsed late in the afternoon of 9/11, even though no plane hit it. “The beam, so named because its cross-section looks like a capital I, had clearly endured searing temperatures. Parts of the flat top of the I, once five-eighths of an inch thick, had vaporized.” [Ibid.]
– Thanks to Shoestring911 for his blog article, largely quoted above (with numbered endnotes in brackets changed into immediate notes). See http://shoestring911.blogspot.com/2008/02/engineer-sees-evidence-of-extreme.html
– FEMA News Photo, source: http://www.photolibrary.fema.gov/photolibrary/photo_details.do?id=4104
“Metal of Honor: The Ironworkers of 9/11” was a 2006 Spike TV program (by Rachel Maguire, aired Sept. 5) that featured numerous fascinating comments on the extreme heat of underground fires, which were finally extinguished mid-December, according to Spike. One comment from ironworker Larry Keating is repeated in a review by Linda Stasi: “The film shows how they crawled down through and up 100 feet of hot steel, even though sometimes it could explode when the buried ends were exposed to the air.” (See http://www.najaproductions.com/images/pdf/NYP.pdf ) Specifically, Keating says: “The grapplers were pulling stuff out, big sections of iron that were literally on fire on the other end. They would hit the air and burst into flames– which was pretty spooky to see.” (Watch at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SLIzSCt_cg#t=2m20s ) Other clips are found here: http://www.total411.info/2006/10/video-metal-of-honor-ironworkers-on.html
“America Rebuilds” comments on the fires here at 3:25. One of the workers says the fires were at one point “2,800 degrees.” While this could be an overstatement, it is important information that shouldn’t be discounted. Because “iron, out of the ground, melts at around 1510 degrees C (2750°F). Steel often melts at around 1370 degrees C (2500°F).” (source) However,
In no instance did NIST report that steel in the WTC towers melted due to the fires. The melting point of steel is about 1,500 degrees Celsius (2,800 degrees Fahrenheit). Normal building fires and hydrocarbon (e.g., jet fuel) fires generate temperatures up to about 1,100 degrees Celsius (2,000 degrees Fahrenheit). NIST reported maximum upper layer air temperatures of about 1,000 degrees Celsius (1,800 degrees Fahrenheit) in the WTC towers (for example, see NCSTAR 1, Figure 6-36).
While these fires were technically not “in the WTC towers,” but instead in the rubble pile, these extreme temperatures have not been explained. One second hand source confirms, “Thermal measurements taken by helicopter each day showed underground temperatures ranging from 400ºF to more than 2,800ºF.” (Jeffrey W. Vincoli, Norman H. Black and Stewart C. Burkhammer, “SH&E at Ground Zero“) This “small group of SH&E professionals from Bechtel Group Inc.” had no reason to exaggerate… although available data doesn’t confirm 2,800ºF.
Images and data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) recorded Sept. 16 and later can be found at the USGS website and in the PDF document “USGS Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center Area, New York City, after September 11, 2001.” AVIRIS provided the most detailed thermal data (including temperature), but other instruments were also used. Sadly, “[a]lthough AVIRIS temperature readings were released to the FDNY, this key information was not received by any of the mapping centers.” (“Engineering and Organizational Issues Related to The World Trade Center Terrorist Attack Volume 3, Emergency Response in the Wake of the World Trade Center Attack: The Remote Sensing Perspective,” by Charles K. Huyck and Beverley J. Adams, ImageCat, Inc., for The Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), June, 2002, p. 39.)
Molten metal – specifically steel – is a point of contention among researchers. NIST denies its presence, of course. Other researchers are also quick to point out that no good photographic evidence has been produced. However, there are many witnesses to this now almost mythical, molten steel.
No video exists of it, apparently, other than that which poured from the 80th floor of the South Tower prior to “collapse.” Watch many angles of this event in a compilation here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPu9IqBfMIw . The official theory states the dripping metal is aluminum from the plane and/or office material. Some think it may be lead from the UPS batteries on the 81st floor: http://11-settembre.blogspot.com/2007/02/ups-on-81st-floor-of-wtc2.html . Discussion on that theory is here: http://the911forum.freeforums.org/wtc2-molten-metal-drip-t188.html .
It is debated, naturally, that no photos exist of molten steel – especially not in pools or streams, resolidified or not. (The meteorites are not ideal.) While photos have been offered as proof – see sharpprintinginc.com/911/index.php… – evidence of tampering (photoshopping, faking, etc.) has also been proven, it seems: sharpprintinginc.com/911/index.php… . Here’s that apparently fake, infamous photo:
Is it possible that all truly damning video and photographic evidence of molten steel has been successfully censored by THEM? What follows is all the testimony that answers, “Yes.”
“Warning! NO cameras or video equipment permitted! VIOLATORS will be prosecuted and equipment seized!” FEMA News Photo (source: http://picasaweb.google.com/Paula.sonnenfeld/WorldTradeCenterTorresGemelas#5249062942128699810 )
Molten steel was encountered primarily during excavation of debris around the South Tower when large hydraulic excavators were digging trenches 2 to 4 meters deep into the compacted/burning debris pile. There are both video tape and still photos of the molten steel being “dipped” out by the buckets of excavators. I’m not sure where you can get a copy.
Sorry I cannot provide personal confirmation.
Mark Loizeaux, President
CONTROLLED DEMOLITION, INC.
2737 Merryman’s Mill Road
Phoenix, Maryland USA 21131
honway posted on 2003-12-13
– personal communication to “honway” posted at http://web.archive.org/web/20040109183256/http://libertypost.org/cgi-bin/readart.cgi?ArtNum=30926
The fires got very intense down there and actually melted beams where it was molten steel that was being dug up.
– Richard Riggs, Debris Removal Specialist in “World Trade Center: Rise and Fall of an American Icon,” THC, 2002. (Watch at http://www.911conspiracy.tv/mainstream_documentaries.html — His name and title shows at video run time 51:26. The quote is from vrt 54:00.
Said Kathy Dawkins, NY Dept. of Sanitation spokeswoman: “…NYDS played a major role in debris removal — everything from molten steel beams to human remains….” (Tom R. Arterburn, “D-Day: NY Sanitation Workers’ Challenge of a Lifetime” Apr. 1, 2002 at http://wasteage.com/mag/waste_dday_ny_sanitation )
September 16–Thermal imagery measures the progression of underground heat on about a weekly basis. These images are produced in 8-bit grayscale, with brightness levels of 0-255, 0 being the hottest and expressed as pure white. This is known as emissive data, or heat being given off from the structure from underlying hot debris or molten steel. Smoldering is yet undetectable, because potential fires appear cold until they are exposed to air. The first thermal images produced began on September 16, and are repeated on two day intervals. I would like to thank Jeff Bliss for the wonderful information and imagery he provided for this story, and acknowledge the 16-20 hours days CARSI Lab director Dr. Sean Ahearn has been putting in at the OEM. I would also like to credit Jeff Bliss, Constandinos Theophilides, and Bob Sklar for their tireless analysis. For a more in-depth look on CARSI, see the upcoming January special issue.
– Maddalena Romano, “Mapping Ground Zero,” GeoNews, Hunter College Dept. of Geography, Vol. 15, no. 1, October 2001 – http://www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu/geonews/october2001.pdf
“Turner himself crawled through an opening and down crumpled stairwells to the subway, five levels below ground. He remembers seeing in the darkness a distant, pinkish glow–molten metal dripping from a beam–but found no signs of life.” – Marci McDonald, “They came to help at Ground Zero. What they experienced they can’t forget” http://www.usnews.com/usnews/9_11/articles/911memories.htm
Now let’s hear from the only real journalist given unrestricted access to Ground Zero for the duration of the “cleanup.” He was below the surface of “the pile,” exploring with engineers on more than one occasion. Here he mentions “…the rattle of cascading debris, the ominous groaning of weakened structures overhead, or, in the early days, the streams of molten metal that leaked from the hot cores and flowed down broken walls inside the foundation hole.”
– William Langewiesche, American Ground: Unbuilding the World Trade Center, North Point Press, New York, 2002, p. 32.
“In his reporting for ‘American Ground,’ Langewiesche explored the shifting debris with construction workers and engineers, documenting the crises and questions as they arose. He crawled through ‘the pile’ with survey parties and descended deep below street level to areas where underground fires still burned and steel flowed in molten streams.”
– http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200207/77nwash (See quote from Langewiesche himself above.)
Peter Tully of Tully Construction was the contractor responsible for the eastern quadrant of the pile– the South Tower, WTC 4 and 5, and the 425,000 square foot underground mall. Tully granted an interview that proved most interesting:
‘Think of the thousands of file cabinets, computers, and telephones in those towers – I never saw one – everything was pulverized,’ he said. ‘Everything that was above grade – above the 6th and 7th floor – disintegrated…it was like an explosion.’ Tully Construction specializes in concrete. I asked Mr. Tully if he had ever seen concrete pulverized as it was at the WTC.
‘No – never,’ he said.
Tully said that there were hot spots where he observed ‘literally molten steel.’ Asked about what could have caused such intense heat, Tully said, ‘Think about the jet fuel.’
– Christopher Bollyn, “Foreign Firms Destroyed Crucial Evidence,” August 14, 2002, online at http://www.bollyn.com/bollyn-9-11-articles-2002
“I saw melting of girders in World Trade Center.” – Structural Engineer Abolhassan Astaneh at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/jan-june07/overpass_05-10.html
‘It’s still cooking,’ said Thomas O’Connor, who manages the construction and engineering work at the site for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which owned the buildings and arranged for the tour through the basement.
In the days after the collapse of the towers two months ago, the tangled steel was still so hot that it glowed like charcoal briquets in the unlighted basement, Mr. O’Connor said, adding, ‘For seven weeks it was surreal down here.’
– James Glanz, “Below Rubble, a Tour of a Still-Burning Hell,” NY Times, Nov. 15, 2001, New York Edition p. B1. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/15/nyregion/a-nation-challenged-the-site-below-rubble-a-tour-of-a-still-burning-hell.html (See the same article to hear this: “A three-foot stalagmite of steel, which looks for all the world like a drip candle, sits next to one of the immense steel columns that held up the north face of the tower.”)
“In the first few weeks, sometimes when a worker would pull a steel beam from the wreckage, the end of the beam would be dripping molten steel,” said Greg Fuchek, vice president of sales for LinksPoint Inc., maker of the GlobalPoint Global Positioning System receiver used to track debris and/or human remains recovery locations in the pile. (Trudy Walsh, “Handheld App Eased Recovery Tasks,” Government Computer News, Vol. 21 No. 27 a, 9/11/2002. Archived at http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/wtc/evidence/gcn_handheldapp.html )
Bronx firefighter and recovery worker Joe “Toolie” O’Toole remembered “seeing a crane lift a steel beam vertically from deep within the catacombs of Ground Zero. ‘It was dripping from the molten steel,’ he said.” (Jennifer Lin, “Recovery Worker Reflects On Months Spent At Ground Zero,” Knight Ridder Newspapers, May 29, 2002. Archived at http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/wtc/evidence/messengerinquirer_recoveryworker.html )
It took me a long time to realize it and I found myself actually one day wanting to get back. Why? Because I felt more comfortable. I realized it was actually warmer on site. The fires burned, up to 2,000 degrees, underground for quite a while before they actually got down to those areas and they cooled off.
I talked to many contractors and they said they actually saw molten metal trapped, beams had just totally had been melted because of the heat. So this was the kind of heat that was going on when those airplanes hit the upper floors. It was just demolishing heat.
– Herb Trimpe, “The Chaplain’s Tale,” transcript of audio interview at RecordOnline.com, archived at http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/wtc/evidence/recordonline_chaplain.html
“‘Fires are still actively burning and the smoke is very intense,’ reports Alison Geyh, PhD. ‘In some pockets now being uncovered, they are finding molten steel.'” Rod Graham, “Mobilizing Public Health,” Johns Hopkins Public Health Magazine, Late Fall, 2001. Online at http://www.jhsph.edu/Publications/Special/Welch.htm
A veteran of disasters from the Mississippi floods [to] Mt. St. Helens, Burger said it reminded him most of the volcano, if he forgot he was in downtown Manhattan. ‘Feeling the heat, seeing the molten steel, the layers upon layers of ash, like lava, it reminded me of Mt. St. Helen’s [sic] and the thousands who fled that disaster,’ he said.
Francesca Lyman, “Messages In the Dust,” National Environmental Health Association, Sept. 2003. Online at http://www.neha.org/9-11%20report/index-The.html (Ron Burger was “a public health advisor at the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, who arrived in New York to help September 11.”)
Describing a speaking appearance by Leslie Robertson (structural engineer who worked on the World Trade Center), at the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations 9th Annual Conference, one source wrote, “As of 21 days after the attack, the fires were still burning and molten steel was still running.” (James Williams, “SEAUNEWS, The Newsletter of the Structural Engineers Association of Utah,” October 2001, p. 3. Source file expired: -http://www.seau.org/SEAUNews-2001-10.pdf. Articles quoting this source include: http://wtc.nist.gov/media/AE911Truth-NIST-Written-Submission12-18-07.pdf and http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/moltensteel.html )
Firefighter Captain Philip Ruvolo testified to the presence of molten steel on camera. “You’d get down below and you’d see molten steel– molten steel running down the channelways, like you were in a foundry– like lava.” His FDNY brothers agreed with his observation. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SLIzSCt_cg#t=1m1s . Source is Etienne Sauret’s film “Collateral Damages” (2003).
A review of of Etienne Sauret’s documentary “Collateral Damage” describes firemen recalling “heat so intense they encountered rivers of molten steel.” (Lumenick, Lou, “Unflinching Look Among the Ruins,” New York Post, March 3, 2004.)
Thanks for much of this collection to http://0x1a.com/#[[World%20Trade%20Center%20Hot%20Spots]]
“They showed us many fascinating slides” he continued, “ranging from molten metal which was still red hot weeks after the event, to 4-inch thick steel plates sheared and bent in the disaster.”
– Dr. Keith Eaton at http://web.archive.org/web/20030422113455/http://www.istructe.org.uk/about/files/president/Tour-2002-NewYork.pdf
“Smoke constantly poured from the peaks. One fireman told us that there was still molten steel at the heart of the towers’ remains. Firemen sprayed water to cool the debris down but the heat remained intense enough at the surface to melt their boots.” – Guy Lounsbury of New York Air National Guard’s 109th Air Wing at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3731/is_200112/ai_n9015802#continue
“He remembers seeing in the darkness a distant, pinkish glow — molten metal dripping from a beam — but found no signs of life.” – Lee Turner of The Boone County Firefighters at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/9_11/articles/911memories.htm
“Richard Garlock, a structural engineer for LERA said ‘Going below, it was smoky and really hot… The debris past the columns was red-hot, molten, running.’
The steel was so hot from the jet fuel that, uh, it was literally steaming. Your boots would melt in certain areas. That’s how hot it was. The steel was coming out red in certain areas for the first couple weeks, at least.
– Michael Casale, Project Supt., Mazzocchi Wrecking in Modern Marvels Demolition segment on WTC Ground Zero
“Vance Deisingnore, OSHA Officer at WTC, reported the following to Jim McKay, Post-Gazette Staff Writer, on September 11, 2002 ‘a fire truck 10 feet below the ground that was still burning two weeks after the Tower collapsed, its metal so hot that it looked like a vat of molten steel.'”
“‘The [NYFD] people who called us had been killed,’ Atlas considered as she surveyed the tons and acres of wreckage. ‘Nobody’s going to be alive.’ Fires burned and molten steel flowed in the pile of ruins still settling beneath her feet.” – “K-9/11: Tracking the Rescuers’ Trauma,” Summer 2002, on Sarah Atlas of New Jersey’s Task Force One Urban Search and Rescue – http://www.sas.upenn.edu/sasalum/newsltr/summer2002/k911.html
“Father Edward A. Malloy, on site 40 days after the disaster stated ‘Firefighters atop a number of ladder trucks were spraying in the areas of greatest smoke. The average temperature beneath the rubble is said to be 1500F so that when steel is brought up it is molten and takes two or three days to cool down.'”
“Guy Lounsbury with the 109th Air Wing of the New York Air National Guard wrote ‘The men who work on this must constantly change their boots as the heat melts them. Two weeks after the attack, one fireman told us that there was still molten steel at the heart of the towers’ remains.'”
“A group of veteran ironworkers eating lunch while staring at the steel skeleton of a new building going up on West Third Street when one commented on ‘how much easier it was to eat a sandwich in front of steel that was strong and straight and new, not molten and mangled and laden with debris.'”
– Corey Kilgannon, “Ironworkers’ Job of Clearing Ground Zero Is Over, but the Trauma Lingers,” NY Times, Nov. 11, 2002 athttp://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/11/nyregion/ironworkers-job-of-clearing-ground-zero-is-over-but-the-trauma-lingers.html?sec=health
Fire Department Chief Mike Donoho of Texas Task Force 1 Urban Search and Rescue described the scope of the destruction, ‘Everything had its own look. In the area surrounding what was the two twin towers, there were several buildings still standing that were burned from top to bottom, and some of them were damaged by the collapse. But the two towers — they were 110-story buildings. And there was nothing that you could put your hands on that resembled anything that would tell you this once was two 110-story office buildings. What you had were large columns of steel that were just stuck into massive amounts of molten steel and other metals, that had just fused together from the heat and bonded together from the strength of the collapse. We dug and we dug and we dug, and we cut and we cut and we cut, and we did not see anything that resembled any type of furniture, any type of personal belongings. We found some pieces of things like a telephone, things like that. I think we found credit cards a few times, and we found a couple of stuffed animals. But you would expect to see, like, a bunch of desks, a bunch of chairs. The only way I can explain it is, if you take a car and put it in one of those machines where they crush it and make it look like a cube, and you can’t recognize what it is, that’s what the whole area looked like. It looked like a massive, molten mess that had been fused together, like a car that had been cubed and crushed. With all that heavy, heavy stuff, there were wires, rebar, concrete. Most of it was just steel. A lot of what we were walking on was just molten steel.’
“The workers go through three pairs of rubber boots a day because they melt in the three-week-old fire of molten metal and jet fuel. The health hazards are everywhere: the fire, molten metal, the lack of breathable air and 3000+ decomposing bodies.”
“Each story has its differences. Some told of 10-hour car drives and arriving in the black of night, the same calendar day as the towers were hit. Others remembered taking military transport – a C- 141 in Deeds’ case – a few days later. Others remember molten metal still dripping under the Pile more than a week after the attack.” – http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20061210/ai_n16903160
“Some beams pulled from the wreckage are still red hot more than 7 weeks after the attack, and it is suspected that temperatures beneath the debris pile are well in excess of 1,000°F.” – http://web.archive.org/web/20050520232345/http://www.liro.com/lironews.pdf
“Ferer was one of several people in a visiting United Services Organization (USO)-Tribeca group who had lost family members. As they visited troops, they carried Port Authority pins, baseball caps, and a piece of molten steel from the WTC.” – http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118717317/abstract
No matter when they went, the odor of molten steel, pulverized concrete and charred flesh burned their throats, lingering in their lungs. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-3115751/Answering-the-call-from-ground.html
It was hot.
New York mayor Rudy Giuliani said “They were standing on top of a cauldron. They were standing on top of fires 2,000 degrees that raged for a hundred days.” – http://nymag.com/news/features/28517
Another danger involved the high temperature of twisted steel pulled from the rubble. Underground fires burned at temperatures up to 2,000 degrees. As the huge cranes pulled steel beams from the pile, safety experts worried about the effects of the extreme heat on the crane rigging and the hazards of contact with the hot steel. And they were concerned that applying water to cool the steel could cause a steam explosion that would propel nearby objects with deadly force. Special expertise was needed. OSHA called in structural engineers from its national office to assess the situation. They recommended a special handling procedure, including the use of specialized rigging and instruments to reduce the hazards.
The ‘hot spots,’ where intensely burning debris generated temperatures in excess of 1300 degrees Fahrenheit, posed a significant danger to relief workers. NASA had an instrument that could provide information that would be useful to emergency responders. NASA’s Airborne Visible infrared Imaging Spectrometer (http://0x1a.com/#AVIRIS]AVIRIS) science instrument was capable of providing data that could be used to filter smoke and locate extreme hot spots.
“The temperature at the core of ‘the pile,’ is near 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, according to fire officials.” http://web.archive.org/web/20010918182531/http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/WTC_recovery010918.html
“Firefighters and other responders contended with intense heat associated with the super-heated steel for weeks; some were coming back from shifts with the bottoms of their boots melted.”
“Two weeks after the attack, the rubble, the Pile, is still 7 stories tall. Below, in the Pit it burns like the gates of hell. It is 1200 degrees, so hot that the steel work lifted by the grapplers comes out soft. I’ve never seen anything like this.” – http://www.ukfssart.org.uk/wtc%20ground%20zero.htm
The dogs were trained to sniff out bodies. They weren’t trained to recognize heat. So when they hopped on a smoldering I-beam [some of which were hot enough to melt the firefighters’ rubber-soled boots] they’d get hurt. Some of them even ignited,” said Bellone, who added that the firefighters were often slowed down because they stopped to care for their four-footed comrades, many of which could not be saved. “We retired a lot of them because of burns or just stress,” he said. The Federal Emergency Management Agency team assembled at the site included scores of veterinarians.
“Firemen and hazardous materials experts stated that, six weeks after 9/11, ‘There are pieces of steel being pulled out [from as far as six stories underground] that are still cherry red’ and ‘the blaze is so ‘far beyond a normal fire’ that it is nearly impossible to draw conclusions about it based on other fires.”
– http://www.nydailynews.com/2001-11-01/News_and_Views/City_Beat/a-130539.asp – also http://www.libertypost.org/cgi-bin/readart.cgi?ArtNum=30926
“Ground Zero at the World Trade Center was a search site like few others after a major disaster event. Multiple sources of hazards were everywhere. There were shards of steel piled on steel, a two-million-ton pile of debris, red hot steel beams still being pulled from the earth, crevasses, holes, unstable ground, still burning fires, possible asbestos exposure, and caustic fumes that may have contained mixtures of benzene, methane gas and other chemicals.” http://michigan.gov/documents/CIS_WSH_minwsw02_28059_7.pdf (maloney.house.gov)
“The first indication of ‘Ground Zero’ is the smoke. It’s still smoking. Many of the beams are still red hot as they are uncovered, and start new fires as the oxygen reaches them.” – Congressman Pete Hoekstra hoekstra.house.gov
The pile of debris after 30 days of removal operations was still gigantic, over three stories high, with structural steel projecting 7-10 stories into the air. The steam, dust, noise, steel and myriad activities were larger than anything I have ever seen. Temperatures in the pile were over 1,200 °F. Every time an area was opened, fire started in any buried combustible debris. Water trucks and fire engines were used continually. The high temperature debris and water created steam.
“It was determined that 3 million gallons of water were hosed on site in the fire-fighting efforts between 9/11 and 9/21″… “In addition, there were 2 episodes of rain during the same 10 day period after the attack: on 9/14 and 9/20, totaling 0.9 million gallons of water per Bathtub area. Considering the neighboring area, one can take 1 million gallons from the rain. Therefore, a total of 4 million gallons of water percolated through the debris in the first 10 days and collected at the bottom of the Bathtub.”
– http://www.llnl.gov/tid/lof/documents/pdf/240430.pdf http://www.marinefirefighting.com/Pages/Newsletters/Newsletter9.htm
“2000 gallons of Pyrocool FEF foaming agent were sprayed on the ‘pile’ starting September 28th.” – http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn1634]newscientist.com
As in a stubborn coal mine fire, the combustion taking place deep below the surface is in many places not a fire at all. Instead, oxygen is charring the surfaces of buried fuels in a slow burn more akin to what is seen in the glowing coals of a raked-over campfire. But the scale of the trade center burning is vast, with thousands of plastic computers, acres of flammable carpet, tons of office furniture and steel and reservoirs of hydraulic oil and other fuels piled upon one another. Steel beams pulled from the debris at times are so hot they are cherry red. Benzene, propylene, styrene and other chemicals generated by the combustion of computers, office products and fuels drift through the air.
– Eric Lipton and Andrew C. Revkin, “A NATION CHALLENGED: THE FIREFIGHTERS; With Water and Sweat, Fighting the Most Stubborn Fire,” NY Times, Nov. 19, 2001, p. B1 at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/19/nyregion/nation-challenged-firefighters-with-water-sweat-fighting-most-stubborn-fire.html
“The crater” of WTC 6 was also suspect, although debris from WTC 1 no doubt contributed to the cave-in. Keep in mind the FEMA investigators were not allowed access. See their “Building Performance Study,” chapter 4, at http://www.fema.gov/pdf/library/fema403_ch4.pdf — titled “WTC 4, 5, and 6” despite the total concentration on Building 5. Kenneth Holden, Director of the entity managing the recovery operation at Ground Zero, the NY Department of Design and Construction (DDC), testified to the 9/11 Commission (See http://www.9-11commission.gov/archive/hearing1/9-11Commission_Hearing_2003-04-01.htm ) on C-SPAN2 TV (See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SLIzSCt_cg#t=3m51s ). He said “Underground it was still so hot that molten metal dripped down the sides of the wall from Building 6.” Molten concrete, which helped form the “meteorites” mentioned above, also flowed like lava at the US Customs House (WTC 6), according to the New York Police Museum display seen in photographs here: http://0x1a.com/#[[World%20Trade%20Center%20%22Meteorites%22]] Guns were embedded in concrete. Building 6 was also the location of the fused steel cross seen in photos here: http://picasaweb.google.com/F.Archiver/D2p1_GodsHouseWTC6?authkey=r_ZzJMbgTrY# . Hear more about the amazing cross here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SLIzSCt_cg#t=4m0s .
Don’t forget about WTC 7:
A combination of an uncontrolled fire and the structural damage might have been able to bring the building down, some engineers said. But that would not explain steel members in the debris pile that appear to have been partly evaporated in extraordinarily high temperatures, Dr. Barnett said.
– James Glanz, “Engineers Suspect Diesel Fuel in Collapse of 7 World Trade Center,” NY Times, Nov. 29, 2001, at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/29/nyregion/29TOWE.html
This and one other sample of steel are featured in the “Limited Metallurgical Examination” done in Appendix C of the FEMA Building Performance Study found here: http://wtc.nist.gov/media/AppendixC-fema403_apc.pdf — authored in part by Dr. Jonathan Barnett. The 2008 BBC documentary “Conspiracy Files – 9/11: The Third Tower” discounts/dismisses this evidence here: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=9072062020229593250 — at vrt 48:40. However, that documentary doesn’t mention the final paragraph of the Appendix C document, headed “Suggestions for Future Research.” (Emphasis added.)
The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 and 2 are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified. The rate of corrosion is also unknown. It is possible that this is the result of long-term heating in the ground following the collapse of the buildings. It is also possible that the phenomenon started prior to collapse and accelerated the weakening of the steel structure. A detailed study into the mechanisms of this phenomenon is needed to determine what risk, if any, is presented to existing steel structures exposed to severe and long-burning fires.
Uncertain mainstream info on this issue is found here: http://www.wpi.edu/News/Transformations/2002Spring/steel.html and justified suspicion is found here: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/metallurgy/index.html — considering no other steel from Building 7 was saved for study.
Barnett was professor of fire protection engineering at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute and, according to the NY Times, “part of an assessment team organized by the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Federal Emergency Management Agency to examine the performance of several buildings during the attacks.” (Glanz, Nov. 29, 2001) That article continues: “If further studies of the debris confirm the findings of extremely high temperature, Dr. Barnett said, ‘the smoking gun would be the fuel.'”
This “smoking gun” has apparently been found among the pervasive dust from the events. It is remaining active thermitic (explosive) material, or aluminothermics. Please read the paper, “Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe” here: http://www.bentham.org/open/tocpj/articles/V002/7TOCPJ.pdf — http://www.bentham-open.org/pages/content.php?TOCPJ/2009/00000002/00000001/7TOCPJ.SGM — download here: http://femr2.ucoz.com/load/1-1-0-3 — and learn more here: http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/thermite/explosive_residues.html . Danish television (TV2News) featured the story April 6, 2009, by hosting one of the authors, Niels Harrit, in a program available to watch with English subtitles here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_tf25lx_3o — and for download here: http://agenda911.dk/harrit/tv2gomorgen/
A main ingredient in the WTC debris was, of course, the dust. It was concrete and sheet rock, most people figured. It was everywhere in Manhattan for weeks – months – after 9/11. Before the rain Friday the 14th, the dust was inches thick in places. Therefore, doubting the chain of evidence for the dust used in the above study is not a valid argument against that evidence. The nanocomposite thermitic “chips” were not the only apparent proof of a conspiracy found in the dust. We have copious evidence in the form of spherical iron particles – steel that was boiled, vaporized in temperatures far exceeding that of jet fuel or office fires. Not only steel, but also glass.
Please scan through the published work of Steven E. Jones, Jeffrey Farrer, Gregory S. Jenkins, Frank Legge, James Gourley, Kevin Ryan, Daniel Farnsworth, and Crockett Grabbe, “Extremely high temperatures during the World Trade Center destruction.” In addition to elemental composition analysis using a scanning electron microscope, you will find this micrograph, or optical microscope image of WTC dust plainly showing dried molten material:
Discussion and debate can be found here: “The Problem with Microspheres” — http://www.sharpprintinginc.com/911/index… . Amazingly, a 9/13 ABC News investigation into the dust confirmed the steel particles, even with some amount of suspicion, it seemed: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8LW6b8JF5ls#t=1m39s — “But most interesting in the mix they are looking, they think, at specks of steel that used to be beams and elevators….”
There is yet another apparent proof of orchestrated demolition relating to the dust: the dense, almost pyroclastic flow. The argument shows that the energy required to generate the volume of dust (specifically after the North Tower “collapse”) was decidedly too high to be explained by a gravity-driven collapse. Please see http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/proofs/volume.html — by Jim Hoffman.
Quickly, here is a list of links to the major studies of WTC dust, in no particular order:
Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 110, Number 7, July 2002
“Characterization of the Dust/Smoke Aerosol that Settled East of the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan after the Collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001”
“Signature Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property,” RJ LeeGroup, Inc., 12/2003 (see image above, spherical-iron-particle-magnified_w.jpg )
US Geological Survey. Huge data collection. (See the USGS pic “iron rich sphere” at Jim Hoffman’s site: …which quotes Steven Jones’s earlier paper (“Revisiting 9/11/2001 — Applying The Scientific Method,” Journal of 9/11 Studies, 5/27/07 at http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200704/JonesWTC911SciMethod.pdf — “Iron melts at 1538ºC, so the presence of these numerous iron-rich spheres implies a very high temperature.”
“Analysis of Aerosols from the World Trade Center Collapse Site, New York, October 2 to October 30, 2001” and “Trade Center Debris Pile Was a Chemical Factory, Says New Study” September 10, 2003
The overwhelming evidence for impossibly high temperatures during and/or after the “collapses” has been hidden from the public. Where it has seeped through into the major media, the evidence has faced a psychological blockade, borne of patriotism and faith in the acceptably inept powers that be.
Please decide for yourself after reading an article from the opposing point of view, that there was no molten steel, courtesy of 911myths.com.
UPDATE: See a NEW video release from the International Center for 9/11 Studies NIST FOIA, 911datasets release 29, folder 42A0346 – G29D32 —
Les Robertson [of LERA, the primary structural engineering firm involved in building the Trade Center], in presentation at Stanford University, confirms that he saw a “river of molten steel” at the B1 level of the WTC debris pile. This video also has a clip of Robertson confirming that the WTC Towers were designed to absorb the impact of a Boeing 707, the largest airplane of its time.
“GLASS SHARDS: Glass was a rare find at Ground Zero, where these shards were recovered. The collapse and fires pulverized and melted most of the glass from the Twin Towers’ 43,600 windows.”
by metamars on Thu Jan 08, 2009 5:21 pm
I went to the NYC Police Museum today to verify that the article and accompanying text were genuine. They are, indeed. Furthermore, there were a few shards of glass, with the following text, which I copied down:
‘Glass was a rare find at Ground Zero, where these shards were recovered. The collapse and fires pulverized and melted most of the glass from the Twin Towers 43,600 windows.’
You didn’t find a shard of glass– anything that looked like it would be used by a person, you just didn’t see it. It was just concrete, steel, that was it– and dust.
– FDNY Engine 285 firefighter in “Collateral Damages” (2006, Turn of the Century Pictures, Inc.)
I never saw a file cabinet, never saw a desk, a chair, never saw a telephone, never saw any type of office furniture. There is no glass. It just disappeared and has become part of this fluffy white or gray dust.
– Assistant Chief of Department, FDNY, Harry Meyers in Dennis Smith’s Report from Ground Zero: The Story of the Rescue Efforts at the World Trade Center, Viking/Penguin, New York, 2002, p. 163.
Certainly, every firefighter who has been at the site knows that there is not a piece of glass or marble to be seen anywhere, not a desk, a sink, or a doorknob.
– Dennis Smith, Report from Ground Zero, Ibid., p. 341. From his entry on November 2.
It was like the surface of another planet. All there was, was powdered debris and metal. It was a – a very strange scene.
– Chief Daniel Nigro (FDNY Chief of Department 2001-2) in “Conspiracy Files – 9/11: The Third Tower,” BBC TV 2008 — watch.
You have two 110-story office buildings. You don’t find a desk. You don’t find a chair. You don’t find a telephone, a computer. The biggest piece of a telephone I found was half of the keypad, and it was about this big. The building collapsed to dust. How are we supposed to find anybody in this that there’s nothing left of the building?
– FDNY Engine 7’s Joe Casaliggi in the Naudet documentary “9/11” at vrt 1:25:20 in TV version at http://www.911conspiracy.tv/mainstream_documentaries.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8LW6b8JF5ls at 1:01: 600,000 square feet of glass in the towers. Dr. Stephen Levin mentions “fine glass powder” at vrt 1:53.
43,600 windows were a rare find in the debris pile. Let’s ask why.
ABOUT THE WINDOWS
Powerful gusts can shatter windows, so for the sake of safety tempered glass eight times stronger than needed was specified. Planners designed the towers to withstand prolonged winds of 150 miles per hour.
– Angus Gillespie, Twin Towers: The Life of New York City’s World Trade Center, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1999, p. 81.
The twenty-two-inch spaces between the columns are for the windows, which are recessed ten inches in order to shade them from all but direct sunlight. The architect specified a bronze-tinted, heat-reflective glass for the 43,600 windows.
– Gillespie, p. 108 (The glass itself was eighteen and a half inches wide. The 107th floor of the North Tower had 30-inch wide windows, for the Windows on the World restaurant. Likewise, “extra-wide windows” were needed for the observation deck of the South Tower.[p. 216])
“The columns are twelve inches deep from the outer skin of the aluminum to the glass….” [ p. 167] (bonus detail)
The windows spanned from just above the floor to the ceiling (The ~12 inch air vents ran the length of the floor. See them in this video). Gillespie estimates the surface area of the towers to be about 30% glass (p. 165), as opposed to the predominant style of modern architecture known as the “International Style,” which uses on average about 60% glass… like WTC Building 7, whose glass was also a part of the WTC dust.
Each tower has fifty-eight vertical columns of windows per side, and each column is numbered. The [window washing] machine does about twelve columns of windows per day, so it takes five working days, or one week, to do one side of the building. There is a turntable at each of the four corners on the roof, so at the end of the week, the machine turns the corner to deal with another side. It takes four weeks, or one month, to do the whole building.
MOSTLY GONE WITH THE WIND
OK, there was a lot of glass! Where did it go, if not into the clouds of dust?
The dusts released from the WTC building collapse are largely composed of particles of glass fibers, gypsum, concrete, paper, and other miscellaneous materials commonly used in building construction
Image source: USGS Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center Area, New York City, after September 11, 2001, which also says the “dust deposits formed from the WTC collapse are heterogeneous and are composed largely of particles of glass fibers, gypsum wallboard, concrete, paper, window glass, and other miscellaneous materials commonly used in building construction….”
More specifically, glass fiber made up 40 percent of all the samples collected and studied by Paul J. Lioy, et. al. (http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2002/110p703-714lioy/lioy-full.html):
It is important to know that the windows weren’t the only form of glass in the place. Not only were there light fixtures, TVs and monitors, but also there was fiberglass insulation (according to Lioy, et. al. — however see below for the USGS description of slag wool as the primary WTC insulation). “These three [dust] samples were composed primarily of construction materials, soot, paint (leaded and unleaded), and glass fibers (mineral wool and fiberglass) .” (Lioy, et. al.)
The Cortlandt Street sample was mainly composed of construction debris [including vermiculite, plaster, synthetic foam, glass fragments, paint particles, glass fibers, lead (Figure 3), calcite grains, and paper fragments], quartz grains, low-temperature combustion material (including charred woody fragments), and glass shards. Chrysotile asbestos fibers were estimated to comprise < 1% of the sample by volume….
Figure 4. “Glass fiber detected in the Market Street sample.”
According to Lioy, et. al:
Approximately 35% of the volume of the sample was in the form of loosely consolidated clumps of fibrous lint, of which the greatest portion was glass fibers. An example of the typical form of the glass fibers is shown in Figure 4. In many cases the width was approximately or equal to 1 µm (to > 10 µm), and the length ranged from 5 to 100 µm. The fiber shown in Figure 4 is not a “clean” glass fiber; other materials are agglomerated along the rod. This is typical of features noted for many different types of particles in each sample. The SEM analysis of the fraction < 75 µm in diameter revealed many glass fibers and cement particles, some in a fibrous form containing calcium, silicon, and sulfur, and some particles were composed of calcium carbonate….
The USGS Spectroscopy Lab provides an important detail:
Use of slag wool, a type of mineral wool insulation, was widespread in the WTC towers (Hyman Brown, personal communication) as part of fireproof coatings on steel girders and the undersides of floors, thermal insulation around glass windows, and possibly in ceiling tiles. The apparent widespread use of slag wool and its brittle nature may explain its presence in all of the dust samples as a volumetrically significant component.
However, this may be misleading because the first sentence in the paragraph read: “SEM energy dispersive analysis indicates fibrous glass with elemental composition closely matched by slag wool in all dust samples analyzed by this method.” This still does not rule out the presence of glass SHARDS.
Small shards of glass containing mostly silica and magnesium were also found.
This cloud comprised a complex mix of pollutants, among them the products of combustion of 91,000 L jet fuel, pulverized building materials, cement dust, asbestos, microscopic shards of glass, silica, heavy metals, and numerous organic compounds….
– Maoxin Wu, et. al., “Case Report: Lung Disease in World Trade Center Responders Exposed to Dust and Smoke: Carbon Nanotubes Found in the Lungs of World Trade Center Patients and Dust Samples” (emphasis added)
Moreover, the New York Times tells us that in the dust “[t]here was slag wool from the towers’ insulation, along with fiberglass and asbestos, wood and glass, plastic and colored specks of paper, bits of cotton fiber and organic compounds too infinitesimal to record.” (Anthony DePalma, “What Happened to That Cloud of Dust?“)
Another dust study gives us this:
It’s important to consider that Silicon is the 8th most abundant element in the universe (according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon ), so it’s a large part of concrete also. BUT, more important, Silicon makes up about 70% of most glass. SiO2 is mixed with other materials to lower the melting point to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) — see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass — so if the NYPD Museum is correct and the glass did melt, there were some really freaking hot temperatures going on! AND THERE WERE. (See “Molten Steel & Extreme Temperatures at WTC“)
Could a building collapse have pulverized the extra-strong glass into such a huge quantity of microscopic shards? Of course not.
* UPDATE *
One professional source claims there were large quantities of glass recovered. Their number is hilarious. Either they were counting the omnipresent, vitreous dust… or they were including the 600,000 square feet of glass once a part of the towers, assumed to be there in the debris pile.
The initial debris estimate included 125,000 tons of glass, 250,000 tons of steel, 450,000 cubic yards of concrete, 12,000 miles of electrical cable, and 198 miles of ductwork.
– Phillips & Jordan, Inc., “Anatomy: World Trade Center/Staten Island Landfill Recovery
Operation,” Phillips & Jordan, Inc., p. 2. Document originally at the Disaster Recovery Group web site (dead link) but cached at 911depository.info/PDFs/Other%20Reports/Phillip…
There also we can read: “Phillips and Jordan, Inc. (P&J) was called to New York by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. P&J was tasked by the Corps as their Advanced Contracting Initiative (ACI) Disaster Debris Management Contractor to serve in a strategic planning and monitoring role.” These people were not on the pile in the bucket lines, digging in those first hours. They only know there SHOULD HAVE BEEN tons of glass.
* UPDATE 2 *
Please scan through the published work of Steven E. Jones, Jeffrey Farrer, Gregory S. Jenkins, Frank Legge, James Gourley, Kevin Ryan, Daniel Farnsworth, and Crockett Grabbe, “Extremely high temperatures during the World Trade Center destruction.” In addition to elemental composition analysis using a scanning electron microscope, you will find this micrograph, or optical microscope image of WTC dust plainly showing dried molten metal and silicate, or glass:
** UPDATE 3 **
Engineer Mark Basile discusses his personal examination of the WTC dust in this video presentation, and at this specific spot describes once-molten silicate spheres — with magnetic properties.
Mainstream WTC dust research uncovered these factoids:
The dust also contained a large amount of an unusual material: glass fibers. Both towers were 110 stories high and had 880 stories of windows in total since there were 110 stories with four walls times two sides of windows. These windows had been crushed by the collapse of the towers. These were different than other materials since the glass windows disintegrated into fibrous dust as well as glass chards [sic].
– Paul J. Lioy, Dust: The Inside Story of Its Role in the September 11th Aftermath, Rowman & Littlefield, New York, 2010, p. 96.
[O]ver 50 percent of the mass of the WTC dust was made up of the cement and carboneous materials. (Carbon is the fourth most abundant element found in inorganic and organic forms.) As part of the carboneous materials, there were significant quantities of cellulose (paper). Most of the rest of the mass was made up of the glass fiber materials. Some of the glass fibers were formed from the disintegration of glass windows. Other fibers released during the collapse would have been part of interior wall board and ceiling tiles. Some of the fibers were characterized as slag wool and would become known as a specific and identifiable component of the WTC dust.
– Paul J. Lioy, Ibid., pp. 96-97.
The fibrous material was composed of disintegrated material that was present in building interiors or on the exterior. As time went on, we would call a large portion of it slag wool, based on work by the United States Geological Survey. However, there were other types of fibers that became of interest, including glass. The composition of the nonfibrous portion of the dust is simple to understand….
– Paul J. Lioy, Ibid., p. 101.
…as opposed to the abundant, microscopic, fibrous glass which is hard to understand, right?
The WTC dust contained construction debris, and the materials detected included vermiculite (a natural insulation material), plaster, synthetic foam, glass fragments, paint particles, glass fibers, lead, calcite grains, paper fragments, quartz grains, low-temperature combustion material (including charred woody fragments), and glass shards.
– Paul J. Lioy, Ibid., p. 105.
The glass fibers were also very curious. Since the buildings were constructed with 110 stories of glass windows, many windows were crushed during the collapse. They, too, had returned to dust, resulting in many small glass fibers. These fibers could be highly irritating upon inhalation into the lung and deposition within the upper airways.
– Paul J. Lioy, Ibid., p. 111.
** UPDATE 4 **
Quotes added to first section, from Dennis Smith’s book Report from Ground Zero. Two days later, Aug. 11, I’m adding this:
Upon their collapse, the twin towers were literally pulverized. Workers at the Staten Island Landfill reported not finding glass pieces larger than three inches. This glass paperweight, however, somehow survived intact and was found in the debris at the Staten Island Landfill.
It has become the standard chant of the 9-11 truth movement. It must change. Here’s why.
First, we must look at some background on this apparent motto of ours. The saying came into being upon the publication of Jim Marrs’s 2004 book Inside Job: Unmasking the 9/11 Conspiracies. Marrs no longer sells this book on his website. His revised 9-11 book is titled The Terror Conspiracy: Deception, 9/11, and the Loss of Liberty.
In addition to the simple fact that the author changed the title of his book, Marrs gives us further reason to pause and reconsider the truth movement’s most visible/audible outward expression. The last pages of Marrs’s newer book provide the explanation for this short article of mine.
Put shortly and succinctly, THEY – “the elite,” or the “secret societies” behind 9/11 – love that this is our motto. And They love the way we chant it disruptively… with the zeal of religious fanatics protesting abortion. It fits Their modus operandi for managing world events. To name the method, Marrs correctly describes the “Hegelian Dialectic.” I quote “The Terror Conspiracy” at length here, from pages 393-395, with some interruption for comment:
Conspiracy researchers were mystified for years how such high-level capitalists as the Morgans, Warburgs, Schiffs and Rockefellers could condone, much less support, the communists who espoused an ideology which overtly threatened their position and wealth.
To understand this seeming dichotomy, indeed to understand how the secret society members operate, we have noted that one must study the philosopher who most greatly influenced these men—the founder of idealism, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Coming on the heels of the Age of Reason—the intellectual revolt against the authority of the church—German philosophers Hegel, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Immanuel Kant inspired future generations with the idea that modern man need not be chained by religious dogma and tradition.
Hegel’s unique theoretical method, known as the ”Hegelian dialectic,” has unfortunately proven to be an exceptional tool for manipulating people and events—that is, when in the hands of ruthless people. Generally it can be said that Hegel identified the universal process by which opposites—which he termed “thesis” and “antithesis”—are always
reconciled in a higher-level compromise or “synthesis.”
Hegel’s dialectic reduced world history and human interaction itself to a simple formula: When one person or group desires one thing (the thesis) around which they organize for power or control, this in turn always evokes a reaction (the antithesis) around which an opposing person or group organizes itself. The confrontation of these two forces moves history forward, as the thesis and antithesis struggle toward a resolution that amounts to a compromise at a new level (the synthesis). This may be achieved through negotiation or some sort of violent battle.
It is this sort of confrontation that must be simulated – the two extremes being young black bloc anarchist types versus white collar conservative flag wavers… anarchists being the public perception of truthers, thanks to our disruptive chanting of “Inside Job” – see Geraldo label the truthers anarchists – “Geraldo Rivera in NYC ambushed…”)
This public perception is only enforced by groups such as We Are Change, who believe GOING TO JAIL is a positive statement. As if their representative behavior can be compared to Thoreau’s “Civil Disobedience” or MLK Jr’s legacy of nonviolent protest – or Mohandas Gandhi’s revolutionary actions. This comparison is made explicitly in Alex Jones’s endorsement found at his site PrisonPlanet.com… which quotes Luke Rudkowski of WeAreChange.org.
Alex Jones – a truth movement leader – need I say more? What better example of ANTITHESIS could his arch-enemies “the elite” care to find? This may explain how Jones’s radio program on GCN is an affiliate of Disney-owned ABC!
Watch “9/11: The Road to Tyranny” and “End Game: Blueprint for Global Enslavement” at 911conspiracy.tv. With all the ostentatious bullhorning and confrontational behavior, Alex Jones only acts as an off-putting personality when glanced at by intelligent, sound-minded citizens. Upon considering the money Jones makes doing his show, his movies and his advertising– it’s as if he’s SELLING “9/11 truth.”
The quote continues:
Hegel’s dialectic was a mind-boggling effort and a philosophic problem that has not yet been fully completed—adherents and opponents of Hegel may well continue to philosophize into the next millennium.
It is therefore easy to understand why such a broadly conceived system has been interpreted in so many ways by Hegel’s followers, which have included such opposites as Karl Marx and Adolf Hitler.
The application relevant here is the idea that Western capitalists, along with the Marxist followers of Hegel, created communism on one side (thesis) as a perceived enemy of the democratic nations on the other side
(antithesis). The ensuing conflict produced huge markets for finance and armaments and eventually a general blending of both sides (synthesis). Often during the past 50 years it was said that the USA was becoming more like Russia while they were becoming more like the USA.
The members of secret societies traceable to Cecil Rhodes’ Round Tables and the Illuminati understood the Hegelian dialectic quite well. Indeed, their predecessors had already for centuries cunningly deployed
a version of the dialectic with which to manage events in their selfish interests. These early-day Machiavellis found it was but a small step to the realization that one needn’t wait for the crisis and turmoil that Hegel said would naturally unfold in the normal course of history. Instead, these conflicts could be covertly created and then artificially controlled to one’s own benefit.
No wonder that in modern times we have witnessed the cycles of financial booms and busts, crises and revolutions, wars and threats of war, all of which were engineered behind the scenes to maintain a ”balance of power” in the interests of global elites—the Machiavellians of today.
Social activists and policy-makers alike have learned this both-ends-against-the-middle stratagem well, whether by experience, intuition or study. Demand more than you really need (thesis) from your opposition or employer (antithesis), manipulate the process in your favor wherever possible, and, even after some compromises, you will usually end up with far more than you would have achieved (i.e., the synthesis) than if you had allowed the natural process of the dialectic to unfold unmolested.
“This revolutionary method—the systematic working of thesis vs. antithesis = synthesis—is the key to understanding world history,” declared conspiracy author Texe Marrs.
Russian revolutionaries such as Lenin and Trotsky were being used by the Western elite to get Russia out of World War I, to the benefit of Germany. But at the elite level, communism was being created to stimulate the division of fear and mistrust presented as communism vs. capitalism vs. fascism.
Even Lenin apparently came to understand that he was being manipulated by more powerful forces. ”The state does not function as we desired,” he once wrote. “A man is at the wheel and seems to lead it, but
the car does not drive in the desired direction. lt moves as another force wishes.”
This other “force” were the members of the secret societies that were behind the birth of communism itself “monopoly finance capitalists” as Lenin described them.
In conclusion, let it be put forward as a plea. PLEASE stop using “9/11 Was an Inside Job” as a motto. Stop freaking chanting, please. The baby boomer middle-agers who lived in the 60’s are only reminded of draft card-burning hippies on psychedelic drugs. “Hell no, we won’t go!” … or “Make love, not war.”
“Kids,” they say.